Yearbook of the United Nations, 2003. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 1, International Peace and Security
The year 2003 was a particularly challenging one for the United Nations in the area of Africa. World attention focused on the declaration of war in Iraq and its aftermath, which gave rise to deep divisions in the international community, severely testing the principle of collective security and the resilience of the Organization, and caused questions to be asked regarding the relevance of the United Nations. In December, the General Assembly welcomed the establishment by the Secretary-General of a High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, the aim of which was to recommend measures for ensuring effective collective action, based on, among other things, a thorough assessment of existing approaches, instruments and mechanisms, including the principal organs of the United Nations. International terrorism continued to pose a major threat to peace and security. The Security Council held a high-level meeting in January at which it adopted a declaration aimed at reinforcing the international community's mobilization against terrorism. It also examined the work of its Counter-Terrorism Committee throughout the year. Both the Council and the Assembly continued to focus on the prevention and resolution of conflict and the provision of assistance to countries emerging from conflict. In July, the Assembly emphasized the importance of a comprehensive and coherent strategy for the prevention of conflict and adopted the Secretary-General's recommendations in that regard. In follow-up to that resolution, the Assembly, in September, held an open interactive dialogue on the role of civil society in the prevention of armed conflict. In the context of the international conflict-prevention strategy, the Council and the Assembly strongly supported the adoption of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme to regulate the sale of rough diamonds. The Council examined its continuing role in the settlement of disputes, and both the Council and the Secretariat held high-level meetings with regional organizations on ways to meet the new challenges to Africa. The Council also considered issues relating to the rule of law in post-conflict situations. The Organization maintained 15 political and peace-building missions during 2003. Efforts to streamline and better manage the Organization's peacekeeping operations included strengthening of the rapid deployment and standby arrangements system and development of a detailed plan for the phased establishment of the strategic deployment stocks system at the United Nations Logistics Base in Brindisi, Italy. The Council considered several peacekeeping-related issues, including gender mainstreaming in all peacekeeping activities and the Secretariat's efforts to develop a coherent policy towards that end, the role of HIV/AIDS and efforts to reduce the risk of peacekeepers contracting or transmitting the disease while on mission, issues related to peacekeeping and the international legal system and the role mine action could play in peacekeeping operations. The safety of UN peacekeepers and associated humanitarian personnel was a priority issue, especially in the light of the bombing of the UN mission in Iraq, in which 22 international and local staff died, including the Secretary-General's Special Representative, and many more were injured. In May, the Assembly decided to donate, as the Secretary-General had done, its portion of the financial award of the Nobel Peace Prize to the United Nations Nobel Peace Prize Memorial Fund, created by the Secretary-General to provide financial assistance for the education of children of UN civilian personnel killed in the line of duty. During the year, the United Nations created one new peacekeeping mission and one mission completed its mandate. At the end of 2003, the number of missions in operation totalled 13, the same as in 2002, and the number of military personnel and civilian police serving under UN command stood at 45,815. The Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, which met in March, made recommendations on procedures for consultations with troop-contributing countries, action to enhance UN peacekeeping capacity and increased cooperation with regional arrangements. The positive financial position of UN peacekeeping operations continued during the financial period 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003. As a result of scaled-down activities due to the closure of missions and the creation of only one new mission during that period, expenditure decreased slightly to $2,501 million, compared to a final figure of $2,572 million for the previous financial period. Unpaid assessed contributions also declined to $1.1 billion, compared to $1.2 billion the previous year. The Assembly considered various aspects of peacekeeping financing, including the peacekeeping support account, the financing of the United Nations Logistics Base, the liquidation of closed missions, the Peacekeeping Reserve Fund, proposals for consolidating peacekeeping accounts, the management of peacekeeping trust funds, reimbursement issues, and procurement and inventory management. It also considered a number of personnel issues, including recruitment policies and procedures.
UN - UN. General Assembly - UN. Security Council - UN. Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations - Kimberley Process - UN. High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change - UN. Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1373 (2001) concerning Counter-Terrorism - INTERNATIONAL SECURITY - PEACEMAKING - PEACEBUILDING - PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS - PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY - SPECIAL MISSIONS - FINANCING - BUDGET - TERRORISM - CONFLICT DIAMONDS - COUNTER-TERRORISM
Yearbook of the United Nations, 2003. v. 57; Vol. 57
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