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Yearbook of the United Nations, 2005. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 1, International Peace and Security
In 2005, the United Nations celebrated its sixtieth anniversary in an international environment, which continued to face interconnected threats to peace and security stemming from war and conflict, civil violence, international organized crime, terrorism and arms proliferation, including weapons of mass destruction, persistent poverty, deadly infectious diseases and environmental degradation. In September, at the 2005 World Summit, a High-level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly to mark that milestone, world leaders articulated the need for a new security consensus that would address those threats preventively, including a new global strategy for preventing catastrophic terrorism from ever becoming a reality. They also approved the Secretary-General's proposal for the creation of an intergovernmental Peacebuilding Commission and a Peacebuilding Support Office to strengthen the management of UN peace operations worldwide, which he had articulated in his report to the Summit, entitled “In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all”. The Security Council, which also met in September at the level of Heads of State and Government to discuss threats to Africa, adopted additional measures for Member States to reinforce ongoing efforts to prevent terrorism. To help countries break the cycle of relapsing into conflict, the Council adopted a declaration on strengthening its effectiveness in conflict prevention, particularly in Africa. The Council also addressed the role that civil society could play and stressed the need for a broad strategy of conflict prevention that addressed the root causes of armed conflict and political and social crises comprehensively. Conscious of the invaluable contribution of regional organizations to UN peace efforts, the Council held a High-level meeting with regional organizations in October and expressed its determination to further develop cooperation between the United Nations and those organizations in the maintenance of peace and security. Throughout the year, the United Nations worked tirelessly to prevent and resolve conflicts and to consolidate peace. Those efforts resulted in the successful transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding in Sierra Leone and Timor Leste, support for the organization of elections in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti and Liberia, and facilitated complex political transition processes in those countries, and in Afghanistan. The year 2005 was particularly devastating with regard to international terrorism, having witnessed an increase in tragic terrorist attacks worldwide, including in Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Lebanon and London. In a series of statements, the Council condemned those acts and called for the prosecution of the perpetrators. The General Assembly, in the outcome document of its 2005 World Summit, welcomed the identification by the Secretary-General of elements for a counter-terrorism strategy, and in April, adopted the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. During the year, the United Nations continued to strengthen its peacekeeping capacity worldwide. In June, the Assembly considered and took action on a number of cross-cutting issues related to the administrative and budgetary aspects of UN peacekeeping operations, including a request to the Office of Internal Oversight Services to review the practices and management structure of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The Council and the Assembly also confronted the issue of sexual abuse and exploitation by peacekeepers, with the Assembly endorsing the recommendations contained in the report of the Secretary-General's Adviser on Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by United Nations Peacekeeping Personnel, entitled “A comprehensive strategy to eliminate future sexual exploitation and abuse in United Nations peacekeeping operations”. The Organization maintained 12 political and peacebuilding missions and 18 peacekeeping operations. At the end of 2005, some 85,000 military and civilian personnel were serving under UN command, compared to 64,701 the previous year. The financial position of UN peacekeeping operations continued to improve during the year, as expenditures increased to $4,074.3 million, compared to $2,933.8 million in 2004, a 39 per cent increase, mostly attributable to expanded operations in the DRC and the full-year impact of four other missions. Unpaid assessed contributions amounted to $1.7 billion, compared to $1.5 billion the previous year.
UN - UN. General Assembly - UN. Security Council - UN. Peacebuilding Commission - UN. Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1373 (2001) concerning Counter-Terrorism - Kimberley Process - INTERNATIONAL SECURITY - PEACEMAKING - PEACEBUILDING - PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS - PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY - SPECIAL MISSIONS - FINANCING - BUDGET - COUNTER-TERRORISM - CONFLICT DIAMONDS
Yearbook of the United Nations, 2005 v. 59; Vol. 59
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