Yearbook of the United Nations, 2005. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 3, Americas
During 2005, the United Nations continued to advance the cause of lasting peace, human rights, sustainable development and the rule of law in the Americas. With the ending of the mandate of the United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala at the end of 2004, the Guatemalan peace process had matured into a new phase in which national actors had assumed fuller responsibility for monitoring and promoting the accords. A joint agreement in May between the Government of Guatemala and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights resulted in the establishment of an office for monitoring and reporting on human rights in that country. Despite efforts by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and the Haitian National Police to ensure a secure and stable environment in Haiti, the security situation remained precarious. Outbreaks of violence and illegal activities of armed groups continued to be a serious concern. The risk of retaliation against MINUSTAH and UN personnel increased, hampering the Mission's ability to carry out its mandate, including preparations for elections. The Mission's mandate was extended and its capacity expanded to address the increased political and security challenges prior to and after the elections. The Security Council sent a mission to Haiti, in conjunction with the Ad Hoc Advisory Group of the Economic and Social Council, to assess the situation and to make recommendations on how the international community could help Haiti restore good governance and economic and social stability. The Transitional Government launched the electoral process, which was to be completed in time for the installation of a new President in February 2006, but political and technical difficulties caused delays. It also launched a national dialogue and adopted a disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programme, the success of which depended on the willingness of armed groups to lay down their weapons. In other developments in the region, the Ibero-American Secretariat was established at the Fifteenth Summit of the Heads of State and Government of the Ibero-American community of nations. Costa Rica filed an application with the International Court of Justice instituting proceedings against Nicaragua in a dispute concerning navigational and related rights on the San Juan River. The General Assembly again called on States to refrain from promulgating laws and measures, such as the ongoing embargo against Cuba by the United States. The Assembly granted observer status to the Ibero-American community of nations and the Latin American Integration Association.
Yearbook of the United Nations, 2005 v. 59; Vol. 59
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