Yearbook of the United Nations, 2005. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 5, Europe and the Mediterranean
In 2005, the restoration of peace and stability in the post-conflict countries of Europe and the Mediterranean gained momentum as the advances made in re-establishing their institutions and social and economic infrastructure were further consolidated. However, many political issues and situations remained unresolved. Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the assistance of the international community, led by the European Union (EU), continued to reform its institutions, allowing it to meet the requirements of the EU Stabilization and Association Process and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Partnership for Peace Programme, and thus move closer to full integration into Europe. In Kosovo (Serbia and Montenegro), the United Nations continued to assist in building a modern, multi-ethnic society through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Significant progress was made by the Provisional Institutions of Self Government in implementing the standards established in 2002 that Kosovo had to attain, despite some delays and setbacks. That allowed UNMIK to further transfer authority to those institutions, including police and justice responsibilities to the new ministries of interior and justice. In May, the Secretary-General appointed a Special Envoy to assess whether the conditions were right to begin the political process for determining Kosovo's future status. Based on that review and the Secretary-General's recommendation, the Security Council decided, on 24 October, to launch that process. Advances were also made in normalizing relations between the authorities in Pristina (Kosovo's capital) and Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Renewed efforts were made to end the stalemate in the Georgian/Abkhaz peace process. Senior officials of the Group of Friends of the Secretary-General (France, Germany, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United States) tried to get the two parties to restart dialogue on the basis of the 2001 Basic Principles for the Distribution of Competences between Tbilisi (Georgian Government) and Sukhumi (the Abkhaz leadership). That initiative was boosted when the discussions on security matters led to the signing of a protocol and adoption of measures to strengthen the 1994 Agreement on a Ceasefire and Separation of Forces (Moscow Agreement). However, the complex political situations between the two sides prevailed, as evidenced by Georgia's call for the withdrawal of the security forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States and for a UN-led international force. No progress was made towards a settlement of the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Nagorny Karabakh region in Azerbaijan. In the Mediterranean, the situation in Cyprus remained unresolved, following the failed 2004 peace efforts. The Secretary-General, having assessed the situation, determined that progress had been negligible between the Greek Cypriots and the Turkish Cypriots, and concluded that further clarifications were needed before negotiations could be resumed. He also reviewed the mandate and concept of operations of the United Nations Force in Cyprus.
Yearbook of the United Nations, 2005 v. 59; Vol. 59
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