Yearbook of the United Nations, 2005. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 7, Disarmament
In 2005, the United Nations continued efforts to advance the cause of disarmament, especially in combating the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and conventional armaments. However, those opportunities were undermined by deepening differences among Member States on a number of security issues of global concern, resulting in, according to the Secretary-General, a crisis of relevance for the multilateral disarmament negotiating framework. Those differences, which mostly arose over procedural and organizational questions, prevented the Conference on Disarmament and the Disarmament Commission from undertaking any substantive work for the seventh and fourth consecutive years, respectively. For the same reason, the 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which took place in May, ended without a consensus outcome on any substantive issue on its agenda and the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly (2005World Summit), held in September, excluded from its Outcome Document any substantive pronouncement on disarmament and non-proliferation. International anxiety arose over particular situations of concern, especially the nuclear programmes of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, which announced early in the year that it had manufactured nuclear weapons, and of Iran, which decided to resume uranium conversion it had voluntarily suspended previously. Against that background, the Secretary-General called for measures to revitalize NPT as the cornerstone of the global non-proliferation regime, while the Assembly called on States to comply with their nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation commitments and to avoid action that might be detrimental to either cause. In continuing efforts to address perceived threats to global peace and stability stemming from the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the Secretary-General outlined a strategy to prevent terrorists from gaining access to those weapons, while the Security Council emphasized the need for the effective implementation of the sanctions imposed against such terrorist organizations as Al-Qaida and the Taliban. To safeguard the operation of nuclear installations, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened a conference of the States parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials, which adopted amendments extending the Convention's scope to cover nuclear facilities. In November, the tenth session of the States parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (Chemical Weapons Convention) decided that 29 April—the date in 1997 of the Convention's entry into force— would be observed yearly as the day of remembrance for chemical warfare victims. There were also positive developments regarding the movement to make whole geographic regions nuclear-weapon-free zones, following the finalization of the draft text on a Central Asian nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty, negotiated over seven years. The first Conference of States parties and signatories to the four existing treaties establishing such zones in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, South-East Asia and the South Pacific took place in Mexico City and considered cooperative ways of strengthening those zones, thereby raising the momentum for the idea of a nuclear-weapon-free southern hemisphere and adjacent areas. In the field of conventional disarmament, Member States maintained focus in dealing with security problems relating to the spread of small arms and light weapons at national and regional levels and within the framework of the Programme of Action adopted by the 2001 UN Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. The most auspicious development in that regard was the Assembly's adoption of a politically binding international instrument to enable States to identify and trace those weapons effectively. It also established a group of governmental experts to consider further steps to enhance international cooperation in tackling illicit brokering in those weapons. In other action, the Assembly continued to promote the relationship between disarmament and development, encouraging the international community to accord attention to the contribution that disarmament could make towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. On the bilateral level, the United States and the Russian Federation continued to implement their 2002 Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty (Moscow Treaty), under which they had agreed to cut the level of their deployed strategic nuclear warheads to between 3,000 and 3,500 by 31 December 2012.
UN - UN. General Assembly - UN. Security Council - IAEA - UN. Conference on Disarmament - UN. Disarmament Commission - INTERNATIONAL SECURITY - DISARMAMENT - NUCLEAR WEAPONS - CHEMICAL WEAPONS - BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS - NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION - CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS - MINE CLEARANCE - SMALL ARMS - RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT - TREATIES
Yearbook of the United Nations, 2005 v. 59; Vol. 59
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