Yearbook of the United Nations, 2007. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 4, Asia and the Pacific
In 2007, the United Nations continued to face significant political and security challenges in Asia and the Pacific, especially in Afghanistan and Iraq, in its efforts to restore peace and stability and promote economic and social development in the region. In Afghanistan, the United Nations found itself dealing with an increase in insurgent activities, especially in the south, as well as poverty, weak governance and bumper opium production. However, across large parts of Afghanistan, robust performances in construction and services underpinned strong economic growth. The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) continued to coordinate international humanitarian and development activities, assist the Government in building institutions and foster political dialogue. The Mission extended its presence by opening two new provincial offices. In March, the Security Council extended UNAMA's mandate by another year. The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), a multinational force established by the Security Council in 2001, continued to assist the Government in maintaining security. In September, the Council extended ISAF's authorization for a 12-month period. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization continued its role as lead command for ISAF. In November, the General Assembly called upon the Government to continue to address the threat posed by extremist groups and criminal violence, underlined the need to finalize the Afghanistan National Development Strategy and urged donors to increase the proportion of assistance channelled directly to Afghanistan's core budget. In Iraq, the unstable political and security situation caused widespread concern in the international community. Ethnic and sectarian violence continued to escalate, though the number of civilian and military deaths dropped during the last few months of the year. On 4 February, a suicide bomber killed more than 130 people in a market in Baghdad, the worst single bombing since 2003. Suicide bombings in northern Iraq on 14 August left more than 400 dead. The United Nations worked to foster regional engagement through initiatives including the International Compact with Iraq and continued to promote national reconciliation and consensus-building. The United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) advised the Government on developing civil and social services, fostered human rights protection and legal reforms, and contributed to the coordination of development and reconstruction efforts. In August, by resolution 1770(2007), the Security Council extended the UNAMI mandate for another year. In June, the Security Council, noting testimonials that all of Iraq's known weapons of mass destruction had been rendered harmless and that the Iraqi Government had declared its support for international non-proliferation regimes, terminated by resolution 1762(2007) the mandates of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency in Iraq. The Council in December, by resolution 1790(2007), extended one more time the mandate of the Multinational Force. The mandate would be reviewed at the request of the Iraqi Government or no later than 15 June 2008; it would be terminated earlier if the Government requested the Council to do so. The United Nations continued to follow up on issues relating to Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait, including the repatriation of the remains of Kuwaiti and third-country nationals, the return of Kuwaiti property, including the national archives, and compensation for losses and damage. The United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste continued to assist the country in facilitating dialogue and reconciliation; the restoration and maintenance of public security; the conduct of the 2007 presidential and parliamentary elections; and further training, institutional development and strengthening of the national police. In February, the Security Council extended the Mission's mandate by another year. Following generally peaceful elections, former Prime Minister José Ramos-Horta was sworn in as the new President. Former President Xanana Gusmão was sworn in as Prime Minister and a new Government was formed. Visiting the country in November, a Security Council mission sought to build on the success of the elections and to support efforts to bolster peace and democracy. The mission reported that despite the tremendous gains achieved, Timor-Leste would continue to need United Nations assistance to address its political, security and economic challenges. Determined to constrain Iran's development of sensitive technologies in support of its nuclear and missile programmes, the Security Council, in March, widened the scope of its 2006 sanctions against Iran by banning the country's arms exports, and designated additional persons and entities as subject to the assets freeze and travel restrictions. The six-party talks on the nuclear programme of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), involving the DPRK, China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States, continued in 2007. On 4 October, the leaders of the DPRK and the Republic of Korea signed the Declaration on the Advancement of North-South Korean Relations, Peace and Prosperity. A Committee established by the Security Council continued to monitor the implementation of the sanctions regime imposed on the DPRK in 2006. In Cambodia, the Extraordinary Chambers established following an agreement between the Government and the United Nations to prosecute senior leaders of crimes committed during the period of Democratic Kampuchea (1975-1979) brought the first charges against those leaders. In Myanmar, peaceful demonstrations by students and monks in August and September were followed by reports of arrests and excessive use of force by the authorities. In September, the Secretary-General dispatched to the country his Special Adviser, and subsequently the Security Council called on the Government to release all political prisoners and detainees and to create the conditions for dialogue. In January, the Security Council established the United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) as a special political mission with a mandate to monitor the management of arms and armed personnel of the Maoist army and the Nepal Army, assist in monitoring ceasefire arrangements, provide technical support for the conduct of the election of a Constituent Assembly and provide a small team of electoral monitors.
Yearbook of the United Nations, 2007. v. 61; Vol. 61
This item appears in the following Collection(s)