Yearbook of the United Nations, 2007. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 5, Europe and the Mediterranean
The restoration of peace and stability in the post conflict countries in the European and Mediterranean region advanced in 2007, as efforts to re-establish their institutions and social and economic infrastructure continued. However, a number of issues remained unresolved. Led by the European Union (EU), the international community continued to assist Bosnia and Herzegovina to move towards full integration into Europe through the EU Stabilization and Association Process. Bosnia and Herzegovina signed a security agreement with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), but the country was not successful in securing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU. In Kosovo (Serbia), the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) continued to assist in the building of a modern, multiethnic society. In March, the Secretary-General's Special Envoy for the future status of Kosovo presented the Secretary-General with his proposal on Kosovo's future status. Having taken into account the negotiations with the parties, the Special Envoy came to the conclusion that the only viable option for Kosovo was independence, to be supervised for an initial period by the international community. The Secretary-General supported those recommendations. In April, the Security Council undertook its first mission to Kosovo and Belgrade since 2002. In August, the “Troika”, composed of representatives of the EU, the Russian Federation and the United States, was established to lead a period of further negotiations on the future status of Kosovo. It presented its report in December. In November, elections were held for the Assembly of Kosovo, including 30 municipal assemblies. Renewed efforts were made to end the stalemate in the Georgian Abkhaz peace process. Senior officials of the Group of Friends of the Secretary-General (France, Germany, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United States) continued to encourage dialogue on the basis of the 2001 Basic Principles for the Distribution of Competencies between Tbilisi (the Georgian Government) and Sukhumi (the Abkhaz leadership). A difficult and complex situation prevailed on the ground, however, with tensions increasing early in the year in the Gali and Zugdidi sector, as well as in the upper Kodori Valley. Abkhaz authorities claimed that Georgian forces had violated the 1994 Agreement on a Ceasefire and Separation of Forces (Moscow Agreement), and Georgia demanded the withdrawal of Russian peacekeeping forces from the conflict zone. Compliance with the Moscow Agreement and with Security Council resolutions 858(1993) and 937(1994) was monitored by the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) and by a collective peacekeeping force of the Commonwealth of Independent States. No progress was made towards settling the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the occupied Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan. In July, Nagorno-Karabakh held presidential elections, the results of which were rejected by Azerbaijan, several neighbouring States, the EU, the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and its status remained uncertain at year's end. Similarly, no progress was made towards settling the conflict with regard to the Transnistrian region of Moldova. In September, Moldova informed the Secretary-General that the situation in the country's security zone had deteriorated. The Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Guam)–area countries (Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova) transmitted to the Secretary-General a number of communications by Guam member States regarding the contentious local and parliamentary elections in Abkhazia, Georgia, which took place in February and March; the contested presidential elections held in July in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan; and documents adopted at the Guam Summit in Azerbaijan. In the Mediterranean, the situation in Cyprus remained unresolved and efforts were focused on assisting the two sides in implementing the 8 July 2006 Agreement. The Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot leaders met in September and each side presented sets of proposals on confidence-building measures to the Secretary-General. However, mutual recriminations persisted and serious tensions continued to exist between the two Cypriot communities. The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus continued to cooperate with its UN partners and the two communities to facilitate projects of benefit to Greek and Turkish Cypriots in the buffer zone and to advance towards the goal of restoring normal conditions and humanitarian functions in Cyprus.
Yearbook of the United Nations, 2007. v. 61; Vol. 61
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