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dc.date.accessioned2015-04-15T19:47:13Z
dc.date.available2015-04-15T19:47:13Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11176/90331
dc.description.abstractNuclear disarmament and non-proliferation issues remained in 2008 at the forefront of the international agenda, with the objective of moving towards a nuclear weapons-free world. Advances towards that goal, however, were modest, as both the Conference on Disarmament and the United Nations Disarmament Commission remained in deadlock. The Conference was unable to reach a consensus on a substantive programme of work, while the Commission concluded its three-year cycle without any consensus on recommendations concerning nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, as well as practical confidence-building measures in the field of conventional weapons. Meanwhile, the chronic pattern of deeply divided voting on nuclear resolutions in the General Assembly continued. In other developments, the second session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concluded in May, although it was unable to agree to attach the Chairman's factual summary to its report. The United Nations Panel of Governmental Experts on the Issue of Missiles in All Its Aspects could not reach a consensus on measures to deal with that issue. Several States ratified and signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and a Joint Ministerial Statement was adopted at the Ministerial Meeting held in September, urging the Treaty's early entry into force. Throughout the year, regional organizations continued to address disarmament and non-proliferation issues. With respect to nuclear-weapon-free zones, a significant advance came with the ratification of the Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone Treaty, paving the way for its entry into force in 2009. The verification programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency remained at the core of multilateral efforts to curb the proliferation of nuclear weapons and move towards nuclear disarmament. Comprehensive safeguards agreements, concluded pursuant to NPT, and the Model Additional Protocols to those agreements, which granted the Agency complementary inspection authority, remained the principal legal instruments upholding the Agency's safeguards regime. In 2008, safeguards were applied for 163 States with safeguards agreements in force. However, there was little progress on safeguard issues in Iran and the Syrian Arab Republic, or on proliferation issues in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as the Agency and concerned States worked to resolve remaining issues. Other gains included the issuance by the Russian Federation and the United States of a Strategic Framework Declaration covering several areas of cooperation, including the intention to pursue legally binding arrangements to replace the expiring Treaty on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (start i). Australia and Japan established the International Commission on Nuclear Non Proliferation and Disarmament, and nuclear disarmament proposals were put forward by the European Union and the United Kingdom. In October, the UN Secretary-General launched his five-point proposal for a world free of nuclear weapons. A major highlight in the field of conventional arms was the adoption of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, a milestone in global efforts to ban such weapons, although member States of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons were unable to reach a consensus in addressing issues relating to the humanitarian impact of cluster munitions. Parties to that Convention held their ninth annual meeting in November. Also in November, the Ninth Meeting of the States Parties to the Anti-Personnel Mine-Ban Treaty took place in Geneva, which resulted in the approval of requests by 15 States to extend the 10year deadline for clearance and destruction of such mines. Progress towards establishing an arms trade treaty gained momentum, with the convening of a Group of Governmental Experts to examine the feasibility and scope of a comprehensive, legally binding instrument establishing international standards for the import, export and transfer of conventional arms. The Group recommended further consideration of efforts within the United Nations to address the issue on a step-by-step basis. The General Assembly established an open-ended working group to implement that recommendation in 2009. With respect to transparency measures, the number of States using the Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures remained stable. While the number of States reporting data to the UN Register of Conventional Arms had dropped sharply in recent years, there was an increase in the number of States reporting on transfer of small arms and light weapons. Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation issues remained in 2008 at the forefront of the international agenda, with the objective of moving towards a nuclear-weapons-free world. Advances towards that goal, however, were modest, as both the Conference on Disarmament and the United Nations Disarmament Commission remained in deadlock. The Conference was unable to reach a consensus on a substantive programme of work, while the Commission concluded its three-year cycle without any consensus on recommendations concerning nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, as well as practical confidence-building measures in the field of conventional weapons. Meanwhile, the chronic pattern of deeply divided voting on nuclear resolutions in the General Assembly continued. In other developments, the second session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concluded in May, although it was unable to agree to attach the Chairman's factual summary to its report. The United Nations Panel of Governmental Experts on the Issue of Missiles in All Its Aspects could not reach a consensus on measures to deal with that issue. Several States ratified and signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and a Joint Ministerial Statement was adopted at the Ministerial Meeting held in September, urging the Treaty's early entry into force. Throughout the year, regional organizations continued to address disarmament and non-proliferation issues. With respect to nuclear-weapon-free zones, a significant advance came with the ratification of the Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone Treaty, paving the way for its entry into force in 2009. The verification programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency remained at the core of multilateral efforts to curb the proliferation of nuclear weapons and move towards nuclear disarmament. Comprehensive safeguards agreements, concluded pursuant to NPT, and the Model Additional Protocols to those agreements, which granted the Agency complementary inspection authority, remained the principal legal instruments upholding the Agency's safeguards regime. In 2008, safeguards were applied for 163 States with safeguards agreements in force. However, there was little progress on safeguard issues in Iran and the Syrian Arab Republic, or on proliferation issues in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as the Agency and concerned States worked to resolve remaining issues. Other gains included the issuance by the Russian Federation and the United States of a Strategic Framework Declaration covering several areas of cooperation, including the intention to pursue legally binding arrangements to replace the expiring Treaty on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (start i). Australia and Japan established the International Commission on Nuclear Non Proliferation and Disarmament, and nuclear disarmament proposals were put forward by the European Union and the United Kingdom. In October, the UN Secretary-General launched his five-point proposal for a world free of nuclear weapons. A major highlight in the field of conventional arms was the adoption of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, a milestone in global efforts to ban such weapons, although member States of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons were unable to reach a consensus in addressing issues relating to the humanitarian impact of cluster munitions. Parties to that Convention held their ninth annual meeting in November. Also in November, the Ninth Meeting of the States Parties to the Anti-Personnel Mine-Ban Treaty took place in Geneva, which resulted in the approval of requests by 15 States to extend the 10year deadline for clearance and destruction of such mines. Progress towards establishing an arms trade treaty gained momentum, with the convening of a Group of Governmental Experts to examine the feasibility and scope of a comprehensive, legally binding instrument establishing international standards for the import, export and transfer of conventional arms. The Group recommended further consideration of efforts within the United Nations to address the issue on a step-by-step basis. The General Assembly established an open-ended working group to implement that recommendation in 2009. With respect to transparency measures, the number of States using the Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures remained stable. While the number of States reporting data to the UN Register of Conventional Arms had dropped sharply in recent years, there was an increase in the number of States reporting on transfer of small arms and light weapons.en
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.relation.ispartofYearbook of the United Nations, 2008. v. 62
dc.titleYearbook of the United Nations, 2008. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 7, Disarmamenten
dc.typePublicationsen
dc.typeArticles / Chaptersen
undr.cluster.topicPeace and Securityen
undr.cluster.topicLawen
undr.contributor.corporateUN. Department of Public Informationen
undr.subject.corporateUNen
undr.subject.corporateUN. General Assemblyen
undr.subject.corporateUN. Security Councilen
undr.subject.corporateIAEAen
undr.subject.corporateUN. Conference on Disarmamenten
undr.subject.corporateUN. Disarmament Commissionen
undr.subject.thesaurusINTERNATIONAL SECURITYen
undr.subject.thesaurusDISARMAMENTen
undr.subject.thesaurusNUCLEAR WEAPONSen
undr.subject.thesaurusCHEMICAL WEAPONSen
undr.subject.thesaurusBIOLOGICAL WEAPONSen
undr.subject.thesaurusNUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATIONen
undr.subject.thesaurusCONVENTIONAL WEAPONSen
undr.subject.thesaurusMINE CLEARANCEen
undr.subject.thesaurusSMALL ARMSen
undr.subject.thesaurusRADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENTen
undr.subject.thesaurusTREATIESen
undr.relation.ispartofseriesYearbook of the United Nationsen
undr.series.numberingVol. 62en
undr.series.sorting2008-P1-CH07
undr.series.years2008


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    Principal reference work of the UN ; provides a detailed overview of the Organization's activities during the course of a year.

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