Yearbook of the United Nations, 2009. Part 1, Political and security questions. Chapter 5, Europe and the Mediterranean
The restoration of peace and stability in the post-conflict countries in the European and Mediterranean region advanced in 2009, as efforts to re-establish their institutions and social and economic infrastructure continued. A number of issues remained unresolved, however, and in some of the countries the peace process was seriously challenged. The international community, led by the European Union (EU), continued to assist Bosnia and Herzegovina to move towards full integration into Europe through the EU Stabilization and Association Process. The Parliamentary Assembly's adoption in March of the Brcko amendment, which ensured the Brcko District access to the Bosnia and Herzegovina Constitutional Court, was the first constitutional change since the 1995 Dayton Peace Agreement was signed. The country also issued its first biometric passports in October. Progress on the reform agenda was limited, however, due to anti-Dayton rhetoric challenging the sovereignty and constitutional order of the country. In Kosovo, developments continued to be shaped by its declaration of independence in February 2009 and the entry into force of the Kosovo Constitution in June. In April 2009, the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo reached its full operational capacity, while reconfiguration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo was completed in July. The UN position on Kosovo's status remained status-neutral. As of 15 December, Kosovo was recognized by 64 States. Although representatives of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) and Greece met twice in 2009 under UN auspices, with a view to reaching an agreement on the name of the State of FYROM, the issue remained unresolved at year's end. The Georgian-Abkhaz peace process continued to be affected by the August 2009 war in South Ossetia and its aftermath, as well as Georgian-Russian relations. One of the five rounds of international discussions held in Geneva during the year resulted in an agreement addressing security issues on the ground. As the Security Council was unable to reach agreement on a future security regime that included activities of a UN mission, however, the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia was terminated effective 16 June 2009. In March, the Secretary-General reported on the situation in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Minsk Group continued to mediate negotiations on the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, yet the issue remained unresolved. The situation in Cyprus continued to improve, and efforts were focused on assisting the two sides in implementing the 8 July 2006 Set of Principles and Decision. Full-fledged negotiations between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot sides continued under UN auspices, with progress achieved in the areas of governance and power-sharing, the economy and EU matters. The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus continued to cooperate with the two communities, to facilitate projects benefiting Greek and Turkish Cypriots in the buffer zone and to advance the goal of restoring normal conditions.
Yearbook of the United Nations, 2009. v. 63; Vol. 63
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